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The FDA has issued emergency use authorizations (EUAs) for a number of investigational monoclonal antibodies that can attach to parts of the virus. These antibodies could help the immune system recognize and respond more effectively to the virus. Currently, these treatments are only being used on non hospitalized patients age 12 and older, who have a high risk of disease progression. The three treatments currently under the EUA from the FDA are:
- Bamlanivimab plus etesevimab: These are neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that bind to different but overlapping epitopes in the spike protein RBD of SARS-CoV-2.
- The distribution of bamlanivimab plus etesevimab was paused on June 25, 2021, because of concerns about the reduced susceptibility of both the Gamma (P.1) and Beta (B.1.351) variants of concern (VoC) to bamlanivimab and etesevimab.4 As of September 2, 2021, the use and distribution of these monoclonal antibodies have been resumed in all U.S. states, territories, and jurisdictions.
- Casirivimab plus imdevimab (REGEN-COV): These are recombinant human monoclonal antibodies that bind to nonoverlapping epitopes of the spike protein RBD of SARS-CoV-2.
- Sotrovimab: This monoclonal antibody was originally identified in 2003 from a SARS-CoV survivor. It targets an epitope in the RBD of the spike protein that is conserved between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
Note that none of these treatments are meant to be used in place of vaccination and are not approved for pre-exposure prevention of COVID-19.
More information about these treatments and guidelines for their use can be found on the National Institute of Health's website here.